HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL
The first example shows how horizontal and vertical measurements are helping line up and construct the head. Notice how from the viewpoint of the artist the bottom of the nose lined up with the bottom of the ear. The end of the eye that is going toward the back of the head lines up vertically with the pointed part of the shadow coming off of the jaw.
DISTANCEIn this example you can see how distance measuring works. The distance from the chin to the naval is equal to two head lengths.
Here is an example of a Leonardo Da Vinci drawing using the principle of angles measurements to line up the portrait. The area beneath the right eye, where the cheek bone is located lines up on an angle with the bottom tip of the nose, this is shown on the left side as well. The end of the mouth is found by finding its angle relationship with the spot on the brow ridge where the eye brow is at its highest point. Remember to begin your drawings with a gesture and don’t try to rush to the finish. Take time to make sure you are measuring correctly.
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